All CANDU 6 power plants are fundamentally the same, although there are differences in detail: these largely result from different site conditions, and from improvements made in the newer designs. There are 9 AECL-designed CANDU 6 reactors in operation, eight of them outside Canada. This Technical Summary provides an overview of the CANDU 6 nuclear power system. Almost half of CANDU reactors have been built in Argentina, China, India, Pakistan, Romania and South Korea. It is located on the shore of Lake Huron, 190 km from downtown Toronto, Ontario, and first delivered power to the grid in 1976. The reactor was used for the testing of fuels and materials, as well as for nuclear physics research in support of the Canadian nuclear power program. That heat converts water into steam. AECL has over 20 ye0ars experience in development and application of … Nuclear reactors produce heat by splitting atoms. This goes all the way back to 1952 with the development of the world-renowned CANDU reactor. Slow neutrons work best for splitting uranium atoms. Its upbringing was suitably expensive, and the spending has been sustained: in 2004 and 2005, subsidies amounted to $2.4 billion. Nuclear reactors produce heat by splitting atoms. CANDU stands for Canada deuterium uranium, because it uses deuterium oxide (heavy water) as a moderator and coolant and uses natural (not enriched) uranium as a fuel. BWXT continues to actively participate in the supply and development of CANDU® fuel and has supplied over half a million fuel bundles for reactors. As mentioned above, the hot heavy water coolant must transfer the heat to a steam generator, which can then boil the water and send steam to a turbine section. Ontario, Canada Abstract CANDU reactor operators have benefited from several advantages of the CANDU system and from AECL’s experience, with regard to spent fuel handling, storage and disposal. It is owned and operated by New Brunswick Power. Additionally, Canada has exported 10 CANDU reactors in India, Pakistan, Argentina, South Korea, Romania, and China. Sign up for our public newsletter to get the latest information on the nuclear industry. Nuclear reactors produce heat by splitting atoms. The original CANDU designer is AECL (Atomic Energy of Canada Limited), a federal crown corporation created in 1952. Examples of different SMR technologies inc… Until 1962, Canada supplied plutonium for American nuclear weapons. Canada is a CANDU nation Hydrogen, nuclear power, innovation key parts of net-zero by 2050: natural resources minister. Its four CANDU reactors are owned and operated by OPG. The nuclear reactor has a special material called a, To turn that heat into useful work (and then electricity), a, That reaction turns water into high-pressured steam. The CNSC has a team of technical experts and onsite inspectors to ensure that rigorous oversight of plant operation is maintained, in order to protect the public and the environment. That steam turns a turbine that spins a magnet which makes electricity flow to the grid. By 1962, the first Candu (Canada Deuterium Uranium) reactor was powering Canadian homes, and Canada led the world in nuclear power generation technology. These were invented and developed in Canada in the 1960’s, when Canada decided that they did not want to build enrichment plants … Canada's inventory of used nuclear fuel comes mostly from the operation of nuclear power plants. After India detonated a nuclear bomb in 1974, Canada stopped nuclear dealings with India. Nuclear plants have been powering Canadian grids since the 1960s, but Canada has been involved in nuclear science and technology from the beginning. Sign up for our public newsletter to get the latest information on the nuclear industry. Because Canada has a record of excellence in nuclear technology, other countries have built these Canadian-designed reactors. That steam turns a turbine that spins a magnet which makes electricity flow to the grid. These features formed the basis of a fleet of CANDU power reactors (CANDU is an acronym for CANada Deuterium Uranium) built and operated in Canada and elsewhere. It is also the power-reactor product marketed by Canada abroad. Here’s an overview of how they produce electricity. Uranium mining in Canada For many years, North America was the world's largest uranium ore exporter and has been a major global producer since the demand for uranium developed. Proponents pitch SMRs as an alternative to larger units such as Candu reactors at Canada’s four operating nuclear power plants. CANDU Reactors. Since its inception in the late 1950s, the Candu reactor design has gone through several generations of evolution to improve fuel efficiency and flexibility, meet more stringent safety requirements and reduce costs and construction time. Canada has a proud track record in the design, construction, licence and operation of small reactors. Small modular reactor (SMRs) generate between 10 and 300 MWe and are much smaller than Canada’s flagship CANDU reactors, which average around 700 MWe. In 1987, the CANDU reactor, along with the CN Tower and the Alouette space satellite, was ranked as one of Canada's top ten engineering achievments during the previous 100 years. This one nuclear reactor supplies almost one-third of the entire province’s electricity! Canadian nuclear power reactors are CANDU reactors – heavy water reactors developed by Canadian scientists and engineers. Innovative Canadian engineering allows CANDU reactors to be refuelled while operating at full power! When the CANDU (for Canadian deuterium uranium reactor) was designed back in the 1950s, its basic features were supposed to make it more versatile, cheaper to operate and safer than its competitors. Innovation has continued on the current Candu 6 design. The evolution of CANDU 6 is illustrated in the inside back cover. Slow moving neutrons split apart the uranium nuclei, starting a nuclear chain reaction. India also has 16 “CANDU derivatives.” These derivatives are based on the CANDU design, and they use heavy water as a moderator. Risks of the CANDU reactor design Introduction The CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) reactor is a pressurized heavy water reactor of Canadian Design. There are 30 CANDU reactors in operation globally. Nuclear energy provides a clean, emission-free source of electricity all day, every day. The breakdown is: Starting in 1961, AECL led the construction of 24 commercial CANDU reactors in Ontario, Quebec, and New Brunswick. Taken together, these 20 reactors supply approximately 15% of Canada's electricity needs. T he reactors were born in an era when Canadian science and technology breakthroughs weren’t unexpected. Seventy years later, Canada is leading the charge once again. Nuclear Fuel. According to a 2012 report by the Canadian Nuclear Association, “building a pair of [CANDU] reactors outside of Canada supports over 2,200 person years of direct, high-wage work and over $2.5 billion in economic activity here in Canada.” Canada's long history of nuclear research and energy generation means that the sector supports 30,000 Canadian jobs across 150 companies. There are 20 power reactors, all CANDU designs, currently operating in Canada. At the heart of the CANDU are pellets of radioactive uranium dioxide fuel assembled into pencil-shaped sheaths that, in turn, are grouped inside six-metre-long pressure tubes. This reaction keeps going because of careful engineering and can be stopped at any time by people working at the plant. The total amount of spent fuel bundles in Canada would fill about six hockey rinks to the height of the boards. The remainder of the used nuclear fuel – which accounts for approximately 2% of the total – comes from prototype reactors (used to test full-power reactor designs) and research reactors. If these bundles were packed end to end, they would fit into a s… Since the 1960s, Canada's nuclear power reactors have used over 2.5 million fuel bundles. The NRX reactor at Chalk River Laboratories (CRL), Canada's first large-scale research reactor, began operation in 1947 and played a major role in developing the CANDU reactor. “Assuming, for the sake of argument, that within the next forty years Canada will have 100 operating reactors, the probability of a core meltdown might be in the order of 1 in 40 years, if the most pessimistic estimate of probability is assumed.” CORE MELTDOWNS IN CANDU REACTORS – KNOWN FACTS 2 The energy of the spinning turbines becomes electricity by moving magnets within the electrical generator. The Candu 9 design has flexible fuel requirements ranging from natural uranium thro… … When it comes to nuclear energy, Canada has always been an innovator. Bruce B (front) and Douglas Point (white dome) nuclear power plants. The Organization of Candu Industries, which represents more than 165 Canadian companies supplying goods and services for Candu reactors in domestic and export markets, applauded the move. 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